The prisoners’ direct experiences of the Strangeways regime convinced them to take the concerted action they did in spite of the retributive reckoning that would inevitably follow from the state. The prison’s dehumanising and toxic regime meant that contempt, degradation, callous indifference, violence and the threat of violence, were institutionalised.
The events of 1 April 1990 and the following 25 days, threw a spotlight on a world that many members of the public didn’t know about, it challenged the way prisons were managed and the way prisoners and their families were treated.
Public pronouncements by the government about the aims of the prison system makes clear that its most important objectives are punishing offenders, protecting the public and reducing reoffending. This suggests the prison system has the capacity to simultaneously punish and rehabilitate individuals. However, the hegemonic role of punishment and its impact on the ability of prisons to also rehabilitate those in its charge remains one of the most contentious issues.
The prison therefore functions ideologically as an abstract site into which undesirables are deposited, relieving us of the responsibility of thinking about the real issues afflicting those communities from which prisoners are drawn in such disproportionate numbers.
Many do support cost-effective, rehabilitative options over punishment. Indeed, this seems to be reflected in opinion polls suggesting a large majority of the population not only support prison but advocate harsher prison conditions.
Five individuals arrived in the UK illegally and claimed asylum; two from Iraq, two from Afghanistan and one from Iran. Two had already claimed asylum in Bulgaria, two in Austria, and one in Bulgaria, Hungary and Austria. All were to be sent back to the countries where they first claimed asylum. They were all detained in the UK for periods between five and 16 weeks. They brought judicial review proceedings to challenge the lawfulness of their detention.
Hayes offers a critical overview on how the reliance of much of the current criminal justice policymaking in England and Wales on punitive and harshly retributive interventionist measures, could be better reconceptualised and more enduring progressive reforms made possible.
In the case of criminal justice, we should expect a resumption of the kind of criminal justice growth and expansion last seen under the Labour governments between 1997 and 2010, an expansion that, temporarily at least, the coalition and Conservative governments between 2010 and 2019 successfully halted.